Editor’s note—Ord. No. G-5244 (TA-4-07), § 2, adopted September 3, 2008, effective October 3, 2008, amended Section 662 in its entirety to read as herein set out. Former Section pertained to similar subject matter. See the History following this Section and the Text Amendment Table for a complete derivation.
A. Purpose. The primary purpose of the Transit-Oriented District One (TOD-1) is to encourage an appropriate mixture and density of activity around transit stations to increase ridership along the Central Phoenix/East Valley (CP/EV) Light Rail Corridor and promote alternative modes of transportation to the automobile. The secondary purpose of the TOD-1 is to decrease auto-dependency, and mitigate the effects of congestion and pollution. These regulations seek to achieve this type of development by providing a pedestrian, bicycle, and transit supportive environment development integrating auto uses with a complementary mix of land uses, where streets have a high level of connectivity and the blocks are small, all within a comfortable walking and bicycling distance from light rail stations.
Transit-oriented development often occurs as infill and reuse within areas of existing development. The regulations within this ordinance vary in some cases from other ordinances, such as the Urban Residential (UR) District, related to infill development in the City, because of the additional need to support transit ridership. The Transit-Oriented District prohibits uses that do not support transit ridership.
The specific objectives of this district are to:
- Encourage people to walk, ride a bicycle, or use transit;
- Encourage outdoor pedestrian activities within public rights-of-way;
- Allow for a mix of uses designed to attract pedestrians;
- Achieve a compact pattern of development more conducive to walking and bicycling;
- Provide a high level of amenities that create a comfortable environment for pedestrians, bicyclists, and other users;
- Maintain an adequate level of parking and access for automobiles and integrate this use safely with pedestrians, bicyclists, and other users;
- Encourage uses that allow round-the-clock activity around transit stations;
- Provide sufficient density of employees, residents, and recreational users to support transit; and
- Generate a relatively high percentage of trips serviceable by transit.
B. Applicability. The City of Phoenix’ Transit-Oriented Development Overlay District (TOD-1) shall apply to lands delineated on the City’s Official Supplementary Zoning Map 1086 as adopted on November 19, 2003. All land uses and development including, but not limited to buildings, drives, parking areas, landscaping, streets, alleys, greenways, and pedestrian/bicycle ways designated to be within this district, shall be located and developed in accordance with the following provisions:
1. For all existing large scale retail/mixed use centers of 40 acres or more within primary village cores the TOD-1 shall not apply where development is proposed which does not result in a net increase of the total area of the existing building footprint in the center. Repaving or restriping of parking lots is not intended to be covered by the TOD. When development of such property results in a net increase of the total area of the existing building footprint the following shall apply:
a. Where redevelopment is proposed that results in a net increase of less than 30 percent of the area of the existing building footprint on the total site as of the effective date of the ordinance, TOD-1 Sections F, H, J, and K shall be applied as considerations rather than as regulatory provisions.
b. Where development is proposed that results in a 30 percent net increase or more in the area of the existing building footprint on the total site as of the effective date of the ordinance, the site plan for that phase of the proposed development will be subject to review by the Planning and Development Department and the TOD-1 Sections F, H, J, and K shall be applied as presumptions. The applicant shall have the right to appeal the stipulations of the Planning and Development Department to the Planning Commission and City Council.
c. Where redevelopment is proposed for 100 percent of the area of the existing buildings footprint on the total site, all standards and regulations of the TOD-1 shall be applied as requirements.
C. Inconsistencies of Underlying Districts. In the event that the underlying zoning district standards, or other ordinance or regulations are inconsistent with these overlay Zoning Ordinance standards or any other provisions herein, the standards of the TOD-1 shall apply.
D. Prohibited Uses. For property within the TOD-1 the following uses are prohibited:
1. Automobile service stations, including oil and lubrication services, tire and muffler installation, and service, or other motor vehicle services, but excluding retail or wholesale outlets selling motor vehicle parts and accessories without provision for on-site installation.
2. Boat dealers, resellers, repair, and leasing.
4. Car washes.
6. Cold storage plants.
7. Commercial equipment and construction equipment, sales, service and rental of.
8. Drive-in businesses.
9. Exterior storage.
10. Funeral homes and mortuaries.
11. Gas station and gas station accessory uses such as mini-marts, convenience food, and sundries sales.
12. Golf courses including miniature golf courses.
14. Kennels, excluding those accessory to veterinary clinics.
15. Manufactured home sales.
16. Nurseries or greenhouses.
17. RV parks or mobile home parks and campgrounds.
18. Telecom hotels.
19. Towing services.
20. Truck stops and uses related to trucking excluding loading and unloading for permitted commercial uses.
For sites with existing structures or facilities, these uses shall not be prohibited until January 1, 2014. After January 1, 2014, property owners within the TOD-1 may request that the Planning Commission initiate an application for a special permit to permit uses otherwise prohibited by this Paragraph D, but which are allowed by the underlying zoning. (See Section 647.A.2.ii.)
1. All uses in the underlying zoning district.
2. Automobile leasing or rental, subject to the following limitations:
a. On underlying commercially zoned property only.
b. Use permit required subject to the provision of this Ordinance.
c. Parking and return of vehicles shall occur on private property.
d. Maximum of 10 automobiles may be stored on site.
3. Outdoor dining or seating as an accessory to a restaurant, subject to the following limitations:
a. No consumption of alcoholic beverages unless a use permit is obtained.
b. On underlying commercial zoned property only.
F. Restricted Uses Requiring A Use Permit.
1. For property within the TOD-1 Overlay District One (TOD-1) the following uses are considered uses that are conditional and that require use permits and must be allowed in the underlying zoning district:
a. Grocery stores with building footprints over 50,000 square feet.
b. Light industrial facilities.
e. Outdoor recreational uses.
f. Parking, accessory to a permitted use, that exceeds automobile parking maximum regulations as outlined within Section K.1 automobile parking requirements per floor area or unit size and land use type.
g. Parking facilities (commercial) as a primary use.
h. Post offices (private).
i. Sports facilities with over 10,000 seat.
2. Use permits are subject to Section 307.A.7.b.—h., 8, 11—13 and the following criteria with review and approval of the Zoning Administrator. The Zoning Administrator shall grant those special exceptions designated as use permits where required upon a finding that the use covered by the permit:
b. Will provide architectural materials or landscape elements that "break up" the scale of buildings and spaces to achieve a pedestrian scale.
c. Will be built in a compact form or manner to decrease the amount of land needed to develop the given amount of land use.
d. Will provide building(s) that emphasizes pedestrian access, comfort, and visual interest with safe and comfortable separation from vehicle access to the building and site.
e. Will not contribute in a measurable way to the deterioration of the neighborhood or area, or contribute to the downgrading of property values.
G. Non-Conforming Uses. Uses prohibited in the TOD-1 that existed legally prior to the effective date of the overlay district and became non-conforming due to the overlay district may expand on the same or adjacent parcel under the following conditions:
1. Either owned or leased prior to January 1, 2014,
2. Be developed under the conditions and development standards of this district, and
3. The underlying zoning permits the use.
I. Development Standards For Permitted Uses.
1. Setbacks and build-to lines.
a. Setbacks and build-to lines. The standards in Table 1 shall apply to new development within the TOD-1.
(1) Where ground level retail uses are present, setback may be increased up to 12 feet for outdoor seating, patio dining, or retail sales by securing a use permit in accordance with provisions of Paragraph F above.
(2) Features such as, arcades, awnings, trellises, covered walkways, covered (non-enclosed) bicycle parking, and similar architectural features placed on the front (street-facing) side of the building are allowed within the setback.
Distance From Station
Max. Building Setback
S-1, S-2, RE-43, RE-34, RE-24, R1-14, R1-18, R1-10, R1-8, R1-6, R-2, PAD 1-11
R-3, R-3A, R-4, R-4A, R-5, R-O, MUA, PAD 12-15
CO, CO/GO, CO/MO, PSC, RSC, DC, GC, RH, UR, C-1, C-2, C-3 A-1, A-2, CP, Ind. Pk., P-1, P-2
60+' and above
*Maximum building heights allowed shall be within the existing underlying zoning entitlement.
2. Building frontage, facade, and entry regulations.
a. Building frontage and facades. In order to support the pedestrian-oriented environment within the TOD-1 station area, building frontages onto streets and open spaces shall be maximized. Building frontage within the TOD-1 shall meet the requirements as outlined in Table 2.
Distance From Station
Minimum Building Frontage as a Percentage of Lot Frontage Along a Transit Street
All structures except where residential uses are on the ground floor, shall utilize clear windows. A clear window is a window that will allow a minimum of 75 percent of the visible light (as specified by the manufacturer) to be visible on either side of the window. Clear windows shall encompass, at a minimum, 60 percent of the building facade length fronting onto a street within the area from 3 feet to 6 feet, 8 inches above adjacent interior finished floor and adjacent sidewalk grade. Blank walls without doors and windows shall not occupy over 30 percent of the principal frontage for non-residential buildings and 50 percent for residential buildings, and a section of blank wall shall not exceed 20 linear feet without being interrupted by a window or entry.
b. Building entry. If a building lot or parcel abuts a transit platform, transit station, transit street, or a major pedestrian accessway, at least one main building entry shall be oriented to the adjacent transit platform, transit station, transit street, and/or primary pedestrian accessway. A pedestrian way shall be provided from the building entry to the transit platform, transit station, transit street, or major pedestrian accessway.
To allow for their use, residential porches of single-family detached units, located at ground level, shall have a minimum depth of 6 feet and shall be a minimum of 50 square feet.
The frontage shall include a minimum of one or a combination of the following methods. A minimum of 75 percent of the sidewalk or pedestrian way shall be shaded.
(1) Arcades, awnings, trellises, or covered walkways attached to the primary building shall be a minimum of 6 feet in depth, measured from any point of ground floor facade to the exterior column or vertical plane of the overhang. The maximum head clearance shall not exceed 20 feet, measured from finish grade. landscaping shall include a row of trees (a minimum of 50 percent 2-inch caliper and 50 percent 3-inch caliper) placed 20 feet on center and run parallel with the arcade or awning. (See Figure 1)
(2) Detached shade structures shall be a minimum of 6 feet in depth and 15 feet in height and should incorporate architectural elements and design of the primary structure. Landscaping shall include a row of trees (a minimum of 50 percent 2-inch caliper and 50 percent 3-inch caliper) located or spaced 20 feet on center and run parallel with the arcade or awning. (See Figure 2)
(3) A double row of trees (a minimum of 50 percent 2-inch caliper and 50 percent 3-inch caliper) spaced 20 feet on center shall be provided. The rows shall be placed parallel on either side of the sidewalk as required in Section 662.I.1. The rows shall be staggered to provide maximum shading. (See Figure 3)
3. Lot coverage.
4. Open space or private areas for residential multifamily development including mixed-use development shall be a minimum of five percent of the gross area. A combination of common and private areas to achieve the minimum requirement is allowed.
(1) The open space areas shall be a minimum dimension of no less than 200 square feet and not less than 10 feet in width and depth. Areas may include the following:
(a) Indoor community or recreation areas.
(b) Swimming pools.
(c) Roof top amenities (swimming pool, gardens, shaded seating areas).
(d) Common courtyards.
(e) Barbecue and picnic areas.
(f) Tot lot.
(g) Lawn and turf areas.
(h) Entry lobbies and shall contain a minimum of six seats.
5. Open space or private area for commercial development shall be a minimum of five percent of the gross site area. A combination of common and private areas to achieve the minimum requirement is allowed. Areas may include the following:
a. Entry lobbies and shall contain a minimum of six seats.
c. Outdoor seating areas.
J. Street and Sidewalk Regulations (See Figure 5).
1. Minimum widths. Sidewalks within the TOD-1 shall have a minimum 8-foot unobstructed width from any obstruction (light poles, parking meters, other street furniture, landscaping, or fences) for circulation with the exception of residential areas with a density of less than 12 units per acre where the width may be reduced to 6 feet.
2. Private use of sidewalks. Exterior storage on sidewalks is prohibited. Pedestrian-oriented accessory uses, such as sales display for flowers, food, or drink stands, are exempt from this requirement, subject to obtaining a use permit for sidewalks on private land in public easements and a revocable permit where within the public right-of-way. Outdoor service of alcoholic beverages shall be clearly demarcated from public spaces. In all cases, a minimum 8-foot-wide unobstructed pedestrian circulation path shall be maintained along the sidewalk.
K. Sign Regulations. New signage within the TOD-1 shall conform to the standards stated herein and Section 642.G (Urban Residential) and Section 705.D.3.l of the Zoning Ordinance of the City of Phoenix except for signs painted or mounted directly to the building surface. These signs shall be governed as follows:
1. Signs painted on the building surface or letters mounted directly to the building surface shall:
a. Be a maximum of 1 square-foot of signage for each lineal foot of building elevation to a maximum of 100 square feet for each business.
b. Have letters and logos no larger than 12 inches in height for building fronts 30 feet in height or less; 18 inches in height for building fronts 30 feet, 60 feet in height; 24 inches in height for building fronts 60 feet in height or greater.
d. The foregoing requirements shall not apply to signs exceeding 56 feet in height approved through a comprehensive sign plan and subject to the requirements of Section 705, Table D-1, of the Zoning Ordinance.
2. Signage may be increased by up to 25 percent by submitting a comprehensive sign plan for projects in which the commercial floor space is a minimum of 15,000 square feet as provided in the Phoenix Sign Code, Section 705.E. in addition to the standards enumerated in Section 705.E, findings of approval shall include:
a. The signs and other displays are appropriate in scale, composition, and manner of display with surrounding development.
b. Content is limited to logos, graphics, business, and project name.
3. Signage shall not reduce unobstructed sidewalk width to less than 8 feet.
4. Opaque signage shall not reduce visual permeability of street-fronting windows to less than the minimum clear window requirement within Section 662.I.2.b.: Building frontage and facade of this Ordinance.
5. Windows fronting the public right-of-way may include only two types of signage for each business:
a. Signs on the glass surface shall not exceed a total of more than 20 percent of the window pane area.
b. Neon letters, within 3 feet of the inside of the glass surface, shall not comprise in total more than 20 percent of the areas of the window opening.
6. Signs projecting more than 6 inches from the front of the ground floor level of buildings containing non-residential uses shall be perpendicular to the street (i.e. 90 degree angle), with a maximum of one sign per entrance. All signs that extend into or over the public right-of-way shall be permitted only upon issuance of a revocable permit as administered by the City of Phoenix. Each sign shall:
a. Identify only one business.
b. Provide a minimum 8-foot head clearance.
c. Be a maximum of 3 square feet in area per face.
d. Project no more than 3 feet into the public right-of-way.
e. Be indirectly illuminated from a shielded light source (i.e. not backlit or internally illuminated). Indirectly illuminated is defined as lighting which is not in a direct course or path, deviating from a straight line.
9. Corner buildings shall be allowed signage on each street frontage.
10. Freestanding or ground signs for a primary use may be allowed to a maximum of 3 feet high and 30 square feet if located within the public street setback. If located more than 15 feet from the property line, primary use identification signs may be allowed to a maximum of 6 feet in height and 60 square feet.
11. Wall signs on buildings in a designated Historic Preservation Zoning District exceeding applicable size regulations may be allowed by the Historic Preservation Commission in accordance with the procedure set forth in Section 812.C.3. and upon the additional finding that the proposed signage replicates the size, shape, and placement of the first permitted wall signage on the building.
12. Directional signs for accessory parking will be allowed to a maximum of 6 square feet per sign per driveway entrance. the sign shall be a maximum of 3 feet in height. No more than 25 percent of the area may be devoted to business identification.
14. The following signs are prohibited:
a. Signs placed above or on top of any portion of the roof or front parapet.
d. Commercial flags, banners, streamers, or other similar advertising devices.
L. Parking and Loading Regulations.
1. Automobile parking requirements per floor area or unit size and land use type. For new development within the TOD-1, the number of required parking spaces shall be based upon the City of Phoenix Standard, Section 702.A.3. of the Zoning Ordinance or as required by the underlying district if those standards are less. The maximum number of spaces allowed shall not exceed 125 percent of the City requirement.
a. A reduction on parking is allowed as provided below:
Reduction To Residential/Multifamily Parking Requirements:
•25 percent reduction of required parking if the development is within 1,320 feet from a light rail station.
•10 percent reduction of required parking if the development is greater than 1,320 feet from a light rail station.
Reduction To Commercial Parking Requirements:
•15 percent reduction of required parking if the development is within 1,320 feet from a light rail station.
•5 percent reduction of required parking if the development is greater than 1,320 feet from a light rail station.
2. On-street parking: For new development occurring within the TOD-1, legally permitted on-street parking along the uses lot frontage shall count towards the parking requirements for on the lot AS set forth within the regulations of this overlay district.
3. Bicycle parking: The following bicycle parking requirements shall be applied within the TOD-1.
a. Commercial retail or office development: Bicycle parking shall be provided at 1 space per 2,000 square feet of tenant leasable floor area, with a maximum of 50 spaces.
b. Residential development: Common bicycle parking shall be provided at 0.25 space for each residential unit, with a maximum of 50 spaces.
4. Off-street parking location (See Figure 6).
a. Non-residential and multifamily uses.
(1) Surface parking lots. Off-street parking location for new development within the TOD-1 should be located to the rear and or interior of a lot and should be placed between the structure and a side or rear lot line. Where a lot fronts onto two or more streets, parking should be located accordingly:
(a) Along the street with the least amount of commercial activity.
(b) Along the street with the least amount of pedestrian activity if the lot is located along two or more commercial streets with equal amounts of commercial activity.
(2) Parking structures. For a parking structure which abuts a transit station, a transit street or a major pedestrian accessway, at least 50 percent of the structure face, excluding entrances and exits, shall have non-parking use at ground level and shall comply with building frontage and facades and building entry requirements in this Section of the Zoning Ordinance. Wherever possible, the narrow side of the parking structure shall abut the transit station, transit street, or major pedestrian accessway.
(a) Parking structures within 150 feet of a residential district shall be fully enclosed.
(b) Parking structures located greater than 150 feet away from a residential district shall be screened a minimum of 42 inches in height on each level with a solid material.
b. Single-family residential uses.
(1) Garages, whether attached or detached, shall be set back at least 10 feet behind the primary front facade of the buildings they serve. The minimum distance between the front facade of garage and the closest edge of the sidewalk shall be 18 feet.
(2) The primary front facade (non-garage portion of the structure) shall comprise at least 50 percent of the overall width of the primary residence and the 10-foot setback shall not be measured from projections such as bay windows and porches, but from the facade of the wall which encloses the building.
(3) Using driveways as the primary access between the sidewalk and the house shall be avoided. Instead, the main entrance to the house should be from a walkway or terrace directly leading to the sidewalk.
5. Location of vehicle access.
a. Vehicle access from pedestrian-oriented streets shall be prohibited unless no other reasonable access is available, such as in lots with a single street frontage and no alley. Where improved alleys are present, loading and service areas may be accessed from the alley.
c. All loading and service drives shall be of a depth that prevents loading and service vehicles from obstructing the sidewalk and roadway.
6. Loading and service area location.
a. Loading, service, and refuse areas shall not be located at the front of the lot. They shall be screened from view with walls, trellises, planting, mounds, or by integration into the design of the building. Walls shall not exceed 8 feet in height. Solid walls shall be landscaped to soften their appearance and shall be made of finished materials to match the primary building. Decorative elements, variation in materials, and articulation shall be used.
b. Loading areas shall be physically separated from public parking via curbs, bollards, low or high walls, raised planters, landscaping, distance, and/or elevation changes.
c. When using walls to separate loading areas from pedestrian areas, landscape elements (e.g. planting, trellises, arbors, etc.) shall be used on the outside of walls to soften their appearance. (Ord. No. G-4559, 2003; Ord. No. G-4602, 2004; Ord. No. G-4745, 2005; Ord. No. G-5244, 2008; Ord. No. G-5449, 2009)